Posted by: theoptimisticconservative | November 30, 2013

Iranian navy takes another big step outward

A couple of years ago, the Iranian navy announced it had deployed a submarine to the Red Sea as part of its patrol force there.  We can’t be sure (from out here in Unclassified World) how many times submarines have deployed to the Red Sea since.  It’s probably not many; Iran does better now with her Russian-built, Kilo-class submarines than she used to, in terms of keeping them ready and deployable, but her performance still wouldn’t be called great.

It’s good enough, however, to back up last week’s announcement that the Kilo-class submarine Younus (also spelled Younes and Yunes in transliteration) was heading for a deployment around the Indian Ocean, and would make stops in India and Sri Lanka while it was out.  The submarine will be accompanied by the frigate Alborz (British-built Vosper Mark V class) and the auxiliary ship Bandar Abbas (a German-built 1970s-era replenishment ship with small deck guns, used for some patrol duties as well as supply missions).

The original announcement, from Admiral Siyavash Jarreh, deputy navy chief for operations, described the deployment as heading to “East Asia,” but it’s not clear how far east it will actually go.  A surface task group consisting of a frigate and the auxiliary ship Kharg made a voyage to China in early 2013, calling in the East China Sea port of Zhangjiagang at the mouth of the Yangtze River (near Shanghai).

(Reportedly, the Iranians later announced that these ships had “forced” an Australian surveillance aircraft to “turn away” during a routine encounter in the Indian Ocean.  According to the Australians, the encounter was ordinary, friendly, and professional, with no “forcing” involved.)

But it’s doubtful the submarine Younus will go that far east.  The Kilo-class submarines are diesel-powered, conventionally-aspirated submarines which need to snorkel periodically, and require refueling during extended deployments.  Younus couldn’t travel further east without a guaranteed place to refuel between India or Sri Lanka and China.  The politics of refueling a foreign submarine, especially Iran’s submarine, are more freighted than those of admitting foreign surface combatants to local ports; it’s unlikely that Iran has made such arrangements yet (with, say, Malaysia).  Transiting the Six-Degree Channel south of Great Nicobar Island, and the Strait of Malacca itself, would also entail making the submarine particularly vulnerable to detection.  Iran would not retain control of how much she let other nations know about the Kilo submarine’s presence.

Google map; author annotation

Google map; author annotation

The day when Iran’s submarines go farther asea is presumably coming, however.  Long before her submarines become a potential threat off the coast of the United States (see here and here for earlier promises to deploy the Iranian navy to the Atlantic – and the support  framework for that potential is being constructed) – Iran’s submarine force will be a threat to shipping in the Eastern hemisphere.  From close enough offshore, the submarines could pose a threat to targets on land as well, with submarine-launched cruise missiles that can range targets up to 140 statute miles (220 km) away.

Iranian navy officers celebrate national defense on Yunes' sister boat, Tareq (under a sign reading -- what else -- "Yes, we can!")

Iranian navy officers celebrate national defense on Yunes’ sister boat, Tareq (under a sign reading — what else — “Yes, we can!”) Photo: Azin Haghighi

By itself, the Iranian submarine threat isn’t very big, with only three subs capable of long-range operations.  Layered with other threats, from terrorism and, eventually, nuclear-armed missiles, it will enlarge Iran’s multidimensional outreach as a radical regional power.  In today’s conditions, the main submarine threat is to shipping in Iran’s immediate vicinity, and potentially to neighbors like Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.  Longer-range deployments to the east don’t have significant political portents; Iran doesn’t have a purpose for sending particularly threatening signals in that direction.

But as analyst Mark Lowe pointed out in March, Admiral Habibollah Sayyari, the Iranian navy’s commander, called the 2013 deployment to China “a prelude to [Iran’s] presence in the Atlantic Ocean.”  This is a delicate way of saying that Iran’s navy is proving – to itself and its chain of command – that it can make such long transits.  If the task group Sayyari promises for February 2014 heads to the Atlantic (see Fars News link above), it’s very unlikely to have a submarine with it.  But an Atlantic deployment for a surface task group is certainly possible.  And as Iran continues to turn at least some of her bluster into reality, a submarine won’t be that far behind.

J.E. Dyer’s articles have appeared at Hot Air, Commentary’s “contentions,Patheos, The Daily Caller, The Jewish Press, and The Weekly Standard online. She also writes for the new blog Liberty Unyielding.

Note for new commenters: Welcome! There is a one-time “approval” process that keeps down the spam. There may be a delay in the posting if your first comment, but once you’re “approved,” you can join the fray at will.


  1. Do you think the US Navy is passing
    the GPS locations to Israel hourly,

  2. Big deal. A Persian sub couldn’t hold an ordinary Alaska crab boat hostage. What possible threat could one be to any part of the US Navy or the US mainland? Iranian military posturing is for domestic consumption, a propaganda effort meant to marginalize internal dissent. The US, and all governments, do the same thing.

    • On a statistical basis, one of the most effective uses of subs in WW2 was minelaying. Theoretically at least, fuses could be set to activate months into the future. Warheads can be conventional explosive, or otherwise.

      • That was 70 years ago. The Nazis were pulling their artillery toward Moscow with horses. Should the US send drones after the Iranian cavalry?

    • 1/3 of the world’s oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz, in the Persian gulf. An Iranian blockade and interdiction of commercial shipping would cause the world oil price to skyrocket. That would be a mortal threat to western economies, including ours because the world’s financial system is interdependent.

      Once Iran has nukes, if Iran seized the Strait of Hormuz, Iranian subs would pose an existential threat to commercial shipping. They would then also be a potential threat to US Carrier’s, which would be needed to force the reopening of the Strait. The Iranian’s current missile technology couldn’t threaten US cities but they could threaten Europe’s.

  3. […] that the Iranian navy would make good on its promise to deploy to the Atlantic.  Its ships made a voyage to China in 2013, and have been conducting extended patrols in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea since late 2008.  An […]

  4. […] naval task force to Colombo, Sri Lanka in late December 2013.  (I wrote the overall deployment up here at the […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: